﻿ Multiplication - Definition, Formula, Rules & Questions

# Multiplication

## Multiplication - Sub Topics

• Multiplication
• Repeated Addition
• Some Important Concepts in Multiplication
• Solved Examples on Multiplication
• Solved Questions on Multiplication
• ## Multiplication

Multiplication is a fundamental operation in mathematics that allows us to find the product of two or more numbers. It is widely used in various real-life applications and plays a significant role in our everyday calculations. One of the primary ways we learn and practice multiplication is through multiplication tables.

In arithmetic, multiplication involves combining or adding a number to itself a certain number of times. This repeated addition helps us find the total value of the multiplied numbers. Whether we are dealing with whole numbers, natural numbers, integers, fractions, or other types of numbers, the concept of multiplication remains the same. If we have two numbers, m and n, and we multiply them together, it means that we are adding m to itself n times or vice versa.

In mathematics, multiplication is denoted by the symbol '×'. Along with addition, subtraction, and division, multiplication is one of the core operations that students learn in their primary classes. By understanding the concept of multiplication and learning efficient strategies, we can solve multiplication problems quickly and easily.

## Repeated Addition

The use of multiplication as repeated addition is a fundamental concept in mathematics that provides a way to simplify calculations and understand the relationship between addition and multiplication operations. Multiplication is essentially an abbreviated form of repeated addition, where the same number is added multiple times.

Example:

## Some Important Concepts in Multiplication

1. Doubles: "Doubles" refers to multiplying a number by 2.
For example, doubling the number 3 would result in 6 (3 x 2).

2. Half: "Half" indicates dividing a number by 2.
For instance, halving the number 8 would yield 4 (8 ÷ 2).

3. Thrice/Three times: "Thrice" or "three times" means multiplying a number by 3. If we multiply 4 by three times, we get 12 (4 x 3).

4. Dozen: A "dozen" represents 12 items. It can be useful when dealing with multiplication involving quantities in sets of 12.
For example, 3 dozen apples would be equal to 36 apples (3 x 12).

5. Pair: A "pair" typically refers to two items. In multiplication, it can be useful when multiplying by 2.
For instance, 5 pairs of socks would be 10 socks (5 x 2).

6. Score: "Score" denotes 20 units.
For example, a four score means 80 years (4 x 20).

7. Century: A "century" represents 100 units. It is often used to denote a time period of 100 years. Multiplying a number by 100 is equivalent to counting in centuries.
For example, 3 centuries would be equal to 300 years (3 x 100).

## Solved Examples on Multiplication

Example 1: Let's consider a simple multiplication: 3 x 4.

Solution: To find the product, we multiply the first number, 3, by the second number, 4. The result is 12. So, 3 x 4 = 12.

Example 2: Let's look at multiplication involving a larger number: 17 x 8.

Solution:  Multiplying 17 by 8 gives us 136. Hence, 17 x 8 = 136.

Example 3: Let's explore multiplication with a zero: 6 x 0.

Solution: When we multiply any number by zero, the product is always zero. Therefore, 6 x 0 = 0.

Example 4: Let's consider a multiplication of negative numbers: (-5) x (-3).

Solution: When we multiply two negative numbers, the product is positive. So, (-5) x (-3) = 15.

Example 5:  Which of the following multiplication statements represents the given addition?

Solution: So, total number of bananas can be represented by repeated addition statement as

4 + 4 + 4 + 4 or 4 x 4 or 16

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