Improvement in Food Resources

Improvement in Food Resources - Class 9 Science

  • Improvement in Food Resources
  • Improvement in Crop Yields
  • Crop Variety Improvement
  • Crop Production Management
  • Crop Protection Management
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Different Types of Animal-based Farming
  • Fish Production and Aquaculture
  • Marine and Inland Fisheries
  • Beekeeping
  • Solved Questions on Improvement in Food Resources
  • Improvement in Food Resources

    Food plays a crucial role in providing the necessary nutrients for human well-being, including proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals, which are essential for proper body development, growth, and overall health. Ensuring an adequate and balanced intake of these components is essential to maintain optimal health and functionality.

    Moreover, the challenge of meeting the growing demands for food necessitates the need to enhance crop and livestock productivity. This involves implementing various strategies to improve agricultural practices, including crop variety improvement, effective nutrient management, pest and disease control, and sustainable farming methods. By addressing these factors, we can strive to meet the increasing food requirements of a growing global population.

    Improvement in Crop Yields

    1. Improvement in crop yields is a crucial aspect of modern agriculture aimed at increasing the amount of food produced from a given area of land.
    2. Enhancing crop yields involves recognising the diverse requirements of various crops for optimal growth and harvest. Each crop necessitates specific climatic conditions, temperature ranges, and photoperiods (light exposure duration) to achieve its best results.
    3. It involves various strategies and practices to enhance the productivity of crops and meet the growing demand for food. This improvement is achieved through a combination of factors such as:
    • Crop Variety Improvement
    • Crop Production Improvement
    • Crop Protection Management

    Crop Variety Improvement

    Crop variety improvement is an important strategy in modern agriculture aimed at elevating the inherent attributes of crops to ensure higher yield, superior quality, and increased resistance to various stresses. This crucial process involves the deployment of diverse techniques to either create entirely new plant varieties or enhance the existing ones, thereby contributing to agricultural advancement and food security.

    Methods of Crop Variety Improvement


    1. Hybridisation stands as a core approach where genetically dissimilar plants are purposefully crossbred to combine the favourable traits present in each parent.
    2. This technique can involve intraspecific hybridisation, which happens within the same species, or intergeneric hybridisation, spanning different species or even genera.
    3. By merging distinct traits, hybridisation aims to introduce new characteristics such as disease resistance, increased yield potential, and improved quality.

    Genetic Modification

    1. Genetic modification involves the precise introduction of specific genes into a plant's genetic makeup, thus conferring targeted and desirable traits.
    2. Genetically modified crops, commonly referred to as GMOs, can carry traits such as resistance to pests, tolerance to environmental stresses (like drought or extreme temperatures), and enhanced nutritional profiles.

    Objectives of Crop Variety Improvement

    1. Enhanced Yield: One of the primary goals of crop variety improvement is to develop varieties that exhibit higher productivity, addressing the ever-increasing global demand for food.
    2. Quality Improvement: Crop varieties are modified to enhance various quality aspects, including taste, nutritional content, and overall marketability.
    3. Biotic and Abiotic Resistance: Creating plant varieties with heightened resistance to pests, diseases, and adverse environmental conditions plays a crucial role in ensuring stable agricultural production.
    4. Maturity Duration: Crop breeding can be tailored to manipulate the growth cycle, enabling early flowering for quicker harvests or extended maturation for specific agricultural needs.
    5. Adaptability: By developing crop varieties that are adaptable to varying climatic conditions and geographical regions, agricultural productivity can be sustained across diverse environments.

    Significance of Crop Variety Improvement

    1. Food Security: The pursuit of higher crop yields and improved quality contributes significantly to meeting global food requirements and ensuring food security.
    2. Sustainability: Resilient crop varieties reduce dependence on chemical inputs, fostering sustainable agricultural practices and minimising environmental impact.
    3. Climate Change Adaptation: Developing crops that are resilient to changing climatic conditions aids farmers in mitigating the challenges posed by climate change.

    Crop Production Management

    Crop Production management refers to the implementation of various strategies, practices, and techniques aimed at enhancing the quantity and quality of agricultural yields. It involves advancements in genetics, nutrient management, pest and disease control, irrigation, and cropping patterns. The goal is to increase the overall productivity of crops to meet the rising demand for food, fibre, and other agricultural products while also ensuring sustainability.

    1. Nutrient Management

    Nutrient management is a crucial aspect of crop production management. Plants require a range of nutrients for their growth and development. These nutrients are obtained from the air, water, and soil. Carbon and oxygen are sourced from the air, hydrogen from water, and various minerals and elements from the soil.
    Nutrients can be broadly classified into two categories: macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients.

    1. Macro-nutrients: These are nutrients that plants require in larger quantities. They include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulphur (S), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). These elements play essential roles in plant growth, photosynthesis, and overall metabolism.
    2. Micro-nutrients: These are nutrients that plants need in smaller amounts, but they are equally vital for their health. Examples of micro-nutrients include iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B). These elements are involved in various enzymatic reactions and physiological processes within the plant.

    2. Manure and Fertilisers


    Manure is a natural and valuable source of nutrients for crop production. It is obtained from the decomposition of animal excreta and plant residues. Manure not only supplies essential nutrients to the soil but also improves its physical structure and water-holding capacity. It enriches the soil with organic matter, promoting microbial activity and enhancing nutrient availability to plants.

    Benefits of Manure

    Manure contributes to soil health, enhances microbial activity, increases organic matter content, improves soil texture, and promotes overall plant growth.

    Types of Manure

    1. Compost: Organic matter is decomposed in pits, resulting in nutrient-rich humus.
    2. Vermicompost: Red worms are used to break down organic matter into nutrient-rich castings.
    3. Green Manure: Incorporating green plants into the soil as cover crops or mulch improves soil fertility.


    Fertilisers are synthetic or naturally derived substances that provide specific nutrients to plants. They are used to supplement nutrient deficiencies in the soil and promote healthy plant growth. Common fertilisers contain varying ratios of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), often referred to as NPK. Fertilisers contribute to increased crop yields and ensure that plants have access to the nutrients they require for optimal development. However, improper and excessive use of fertilisers can lead to negative environmental impacts, such as water pollution and soil degradation.

    Benefits of Fertilisers

    Fertilisers enhance plant growth and yield, improve nutrient availability, and address specific nutrient deficiencies.

    Drawbacks of Fertilisers

    Excessive use can lead to soil degradation, nutrient imbalances, and environmental pollution.

    3. Organic Farming

    1. Organic farming is an environmentally friendly approach to crop production management. It focuses on maintaining soil health, reducing the use of synthetic chemicals, and promoting sustainable practices.
    2. Organic farmers rely on natural sources of nutrients, such as compost, manure, and cover crops, to enrich the soil. They avoid the use of synthetic pesticides and herbicides and instead employ biological controls and cultural practices to manage pests and diseases. Organic farming aims to create a balanced ecosystem that supports both crop growth and environmental conservation.

    4. Irrigation

    Irrigation is the controlled application of water to plants, particularly crops, to provide the necessary moisture for their growth and development. It is a critical practice in agriculture, especially in regions with insufficient or unpredictable rainfall, to ensure optimal plant health and productivity. Irrigation helps maintain consistent soil moisture levels, allowing plants to access the water they need for various physiological processes like photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and cell expansion.

    Importance of Irrigation

    1. Water Supply: Irrigation provides a supplementary water supply to plants when natural rainfall is inadequate or irregular. This ensures that crops receive the necessary amount of water throughout their growth cycle.
    2. Enhanced Yield: Proper irrigation helps in maximising crop yield by preventing water stress, which can lead to reduced growth and lower productivity.
    3. Crop Quality: Adequate and consistent moisture supply improves the quality of crops, leading to better taste, appearance, and nutritional content.
    4. Climate Adaptation: Irrigation is essential for farming in arid or semi-arid regions where rainfall is insufficient to support agriculture.
    5. Optimised Plant Growth: Consistent moisture levels promote balanced plant growth, preventing stunted growth or uneven development.
    6. Efficient Nutrient Uptake: Proper irrigation facilitates the uptake of nutrients from the soil, promoting healthy plant growth.

    Methods of Irrigation

    1. Surface Irrigation: Water is applied to the soil surface and allowed to flow through furrows, borders, or basins, which are designed to direct water to the root zone of plants.
    2. Drip Irrigation: Water is delivered directly to the root zone of plants through a network of pipes, tubes, and emitters. This method is efficient and minimises water wastage.
    3. Sprinkler Irrigation: Water is sprayed over the crops in the form of droplets, simulating natural rainfall. This method is suitable for a variety of crops and can cover large areas.
    4. Subsurface Irrigation: Water is applied directly to the root zone below the soil surface, either through buried pipes or porous tubing. It reduces water loss due to evaporation and can minimise weed growth.
    5. Furrow Irrigation: Channels are created between crop rows, and water flows through these furrows to reach the plant roots.

    4. Cropping Patterns

    Cropping patterns refer to the arrangement and combination of different crops on a piece of agricultural land. These patterns determine how various crops are grown together and play a crucial role in optimising land use, enhancing yield, and maintaining soil fertility. Different cropping patterns include monocropping, mixed cropping, intercropping, and crop rotation, each with its unique characteristics and benefits.

    1. Monocropping (Monoculture): Monocropping involves cultivating a single type of crop on a particular piece of land. This approach simplifies management and is suitable for mechanisation. However, it can lead to soil nutrient depletion, increased pest and disease susceptibility, and reduced ecosystem diversity.
    2. Mixed Cropping: In mixed cropping, two or more different crops are grown simultaneously on the same piece of land. This helps maximise the utilisation of available resources, reduce risk, and enhance overall productivity. Mixed cropping can involve growing crops with different growth habits, nutrient requirements, and harvest times.
    3. Intercropping: Intercropping refers to cultivating two or more crops together in a specific spatial arrangement. The crops are chosen based on their growth compatibility and resource utilisation. Intercropping can provide benefits like pest control (companion planting), efficient land use, and better utilisation of light, water, and nutrients.
    4. Crop Rotation: Crop rotation involves growing different crops in a planned sequence on the same piece of land over successive seasons. This helps break the pest and disease cycle, improve soil fertility, and maintain a balanced nutrient profile. Different crops with varying nutrient needs are rotated to prevent soil nutrient depletion.

    Crop Protection Management

    Crop Protection Management is a crucial aspect of agricultural practices that focuses on safeguarding crops from various threats, including pests, diseases, weeds, and storage-related issues. Effective crop protection ensures optimal yield, quality, and sustainability in agricultural production.
    Key components and strategies involved in crop protection are:

    1. Weed Control

    Weeds are unwanted plants that compete with crops for resources such as nutrients, water, light, and space. Uncontrolled weed growth can significantly reduce crop yield and quality. Weed control strategies include:

    1. Chemical Control: Herbicides or weedicides are used to selectively target and eliminate weeds without harming the crops. Pre-emergence herbicides are applied before crop emergence, while post-emergence herbicides are applied after crop growth.
    2. Mechanical Control: Manual removal, ploughing, hoeing, or using mechanical tools like weeders can physically remove weeds from the field.
    3. Cultural Practices: Proper seedbed preparation, timely sowing, intercropping, and crop rotation can suppress weed growth and competition.

    2. Insect and Pest Management

    Insects and pests can cause substantial damage to crops by feeding on plant parts or transmitting diseases. Effective pest management strategies include:

    1. Chemical Control: Insecticides and pesticides target specific pests and prevent infestations. However, there's a growing emphasis on using eco-friendly and targeted options.
    2. Biological Control: Beneficial insects, predators, and parasitoids are introduced to control pest populations naturally.
    3. Cultural Methods: Practices like crop rotation, trap cropping, and maintaining proper plant spacing can deter pests.
    4. Integrated Pest Management (IPM): This approach combines multiple strategies to manage pests while minimising environmental impact. It involves monitoring pest populations, using natural enemies, practising good hygiene, and applying chemicals as a last resort.

    3. Disease Prevention and Management

    Plant diseases caused by pathogens like fungi, bacteria, and viruses can lead to yield loss. Disease management strategies include:

    1. Resistant Varieties: Planting disease-resistant crop varieties can reduce the susceptibility to specific pathogens.
    2. Sanitation and Hygiene: Proper field hygiene, removing infected plants, and cleaning tools prevent disease spread.
    3. Chemical Control: Fungicides and bactericides are used to control disease outbreaks, particularly in high-risk situations.
    4. Cultural Practices: Crop rotation, maintaining proper spacing, and avoiding waterlogged conditions can prevent disease development.

    4. Storage Management

    After harvest, effective storage practices are vital to prevent post-harvest losses. Storage management strategies include:

    1. Proper Drying: Drying harvested crops to appropriate moisture levels prevents fungal growth and spoilage.
    2. Storage Facilities: Adequate storage structures with ventilation and protection against pests and rodents are essential.
    3. Fumigation: Controlled use of fumigants can eliminate pests present in stored crops.

    5. Storage of Grains

    Storage of grains is a crucial aspect of post-harvest management in agriculture. After crops are harvested, they need to be properly stored to prevent spoilage, maintain quality, and ensure a stable food supply. Grains are susceptible to various factors that can lead to post-harvest losses, such as pests, pathogens, moisture, and environmental conditions. Proper storage practices are essential to minimise these losses and preserve the nutritional value of grains for consumption.

    a) Importance of Proper Grain Storage

    • Prevent Losses: Poor storage practices can result in significant post-harvest losses due to pests, fungi, and environmental factors. Proper storage helps prevent economic losses and ensures food security.
    • Preserve Quality: High-quality grains can deteriorate quickly if not stored correctly. Proper storage maintains grain quality, taste, and nutritional value.
    • Supply Stability: Adequate storage ensures a stable supply of grains throughout the year, bridging the gap between harvest seasons and demand.
    • Market Access: Quality grains fetch higher prices in the market. Proper storage enables farmers to access better markets and earn higher incomes.

    b) Factors Affecting Storage Losses

    • Pests and Insects: Insects and pests can infest stored grains, leading to contamination and spoilage.
    • Fungi and Mould: Moisture content in stored grains can encourage the growth of fungi and mould, which produce toxins harmful to human health.
    • Temperature and Humidity: Improper temperature and humidity conditions can accelerate spoilage and mould growth.
    • Oxygen Levels: Oxygen promotes the growth of pests and microorganisms. Low oxygen levels can help prevent infestations.
    • Physical Damage: Mechanical damage during harvesting, threshing, and handling can create entry points for pests and microorganisms.

    c) Strategies to Minimise Storage Losses

    • Drying: Properly drying grains to a safe moisture content level (usually below 12%) before storage prevents fungal growth and spoilage.
    • Cleaning: Removing foreign particles, broken grains, and debris before storage reduces the chances of contamination and pest infestations.
    • Fumigation: Controlled use of fumigants can help eliminate pests and insects in stored grains. This should be done carefully to ensure food safety.
    • Sealing and Ventilation: Properly sealed storage containers prevent entry of pests and maintain optimal conditions. Controlled ventilation prevents moisture buildup.
    • Storage Containers: Using appropriate containers such as silos, bins, or hermetically sealed bags can protect grains from pests and environmental factors.
    • Temperature and Humidity Control: Keeping grains at lower temperatures and controlled humidity levels can slow down the growth of pests and microorganisms.

    d) Types of Grain Storage

    • Traditional Storage: This involves using locally available materials like baskets, pots, or pits. It's essential to protect grains from pests and moisture.
    • Modern Storage: Silos, bins, and warehouses are commonly used for larger-scale storage. These structures provide better protection against pests and environmental conditions.

    Animal Husbandry

    Animal husbandry refers to the scientific and responsible management of domesticated animals for various purposes, including food production, work, and companionship. It involves the care, breeding, and overall well-being of animals to ensure their optimal health, productivity, and contribution to human needs. Animal husbandry encompasses a range of practices related to livestock, poultry, and other domestic animals.

    Key Aspects of Animal Husbandry

    1. Feeding: Providing animals with proper nutrition is essential for their growth, health, and productivity. Animal nutrition involves understanding the dietary needs of different species, including the balance of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
    2. Breeding: Selective breeding aims to improve the genetic traits of animals, such as growth rate, disease resistance, and milk or meat production. Breeding programs may involve choosing specific individuals for mating to pass on desirable traits to the offspring.
    3. Housing and Shelter: Providing suitable housing and shelter is important to protect animals from harsh weather conditions, predators, and diseases. Adequate ventilation, space, and cleanliness contribute to the well-being of the animals.
    4. Healthcare and Disease Management: Regular health check-ups, vaccinations, and preventive measures are necessary to keep animals healthy. Veterinary care helps identify and treat illnesses and injuries promptly.
    5. Reproduction Management: Managing the reproductive cycle of animals involves controlling mating, pregnancy, and birth to ensure healthy offspring and optimal breeding outcomes.
    6. Work and Transportation: Some animals, such as oxen and horses, are used for agricultural work and transportation. Proper training, care, and humane treatment are important to ensure their well-being.

    Significance of Animal Husbandry

    1. Food Production: Animal husbandry provides a significant portion of the world's meat, milk, eggs, and other animal-based products, contributing to global food security.
    2. Livelihoods: Animal husbandry supports the livelihoods of millions of people involved in raising, breeding, and caring for animals.
    3. Economic Contribution: Livestock and poultry products are important commodities in agricultural economies, contributing to national and international trade.
    4. Nutrition and Health: Animal-based products are a valuable source of essential nutrients, including protein, vitamins, and minerals, contributing to human nutrition and health.
    5. Sustainability: Proper animal husbandry practices promote sustainable agriculture by ensuring responsible resource use, animal welfare, and environmental protection.

    Different Types of Animal-based Farming

    1. Cattle Farming

    Cattle farming, also known as cattle rearing or livestock farming, involves the raising and management of cattle for various purposes, primarily milk and agricultural labour. It plays a significant role in the agricultural and dairy sectors, providing essential resources for human consumption and work activities.

    Milk Production and Breeds

    1. Cattle rearing is practised mainly for two purposes: milk production and draught labour. Milch animals refer to female cattle primarily raised for milk, while draught animals, usually males, are used for agricultural tasks like ploughing.
    2. Milk production from cows depends on their lactation period, which is the duration of time during which they produce milk after giving birth. Maximising milk yield during this period is a key goal in dairy farming.
    3. Exotic or foreign breeds, such as Jersey and Brown Swiss, are often chosen for their high milk production and extended lactation periods. These breeds are known for their ability to produce significant amounts of milk over a longer duration.

    Housing and Management

    1. Proper housing is essential for the well-being and productivity of cattle. Well-ventilated and roofed sheds provide protection from harsh weather conditions and maintain a comfortable environment.
    2. Regular cleaning of the sheds and maintaining hygiene are crucial to prevent the spread of diseases and ensure the overall health of the cattle.
    3. Adequate feeding and nutrition are vital for cattle productivity. Proper food requirements must be met to ensure that cattle receive the necessary nutrients for growth, milk production, and overall health.

    Feeding Requirements

    1. Adequate feeding and nutrition are vital for cattle productivity. Proper food requirements must be met to ensure that cattle receive the necessary nutrients for growth, milk production, and overall health.
    2. Cattle have specific feeding requirements to meet their nutritional needs. Their diet usually consists of two main components: roughage and concentrates.
    3. Roughage includes fibrous feed sources like hay, silage, and grass. These provide essential fibre for proper digestion and help maintain the health of the cattle's digestive system.
    4. Concentrates are feed sources that are rich in protein and other nutrients but lower in fibre. They provide the necessary energy and nutrients for growth, milk production, and other physiological functions.
     Learn more about Sources of Energy


    1. Cattle farming contributes significantly to milk production, which is a vital source of nutrition for humans, providing protein, vitamins, and minerals.
    2. Draught animals play an essential role in agricultural activities in many regions, providing labour for ploughing, tilling, and transportation.

    2. Poultry Farming

    Poultry farming refers to the practice of raising domesticated birds, such as chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese, for various purposes, including egg production and meat supply. It is a vital sector of the agricultural industry that plays a crucial role in providing a consistent source of protein-rich food for human consumption.

    Purposes of Poultry Farming

    1. Egg Production: Some poultry farms focus on raising birds primarily for egg production. These birds, known as layers, are selected for their ability to lay a significant number of eggs over their lifetime. Different breeds are chosen based on factors such as egg size, colour, and frequency of laying.
    2. Meat Production: Other poultry farms specialise in raising birds for meat consumption. These birds, known as broilers, are bred and managed to rapidly gain weight and develop high-quality meat. The goal is to produce tender and flavorful poultry meat for human consumption.

    Egg Production Management

    Successful egg production in poultry farming requires careful management practices to ensure optimal conditions for the laying hens. The following key factors contribute to good egg production:

    1. Maintenance of Optimum Temperature: Providing the right temperature range within the poultry house is crucial to maintaining the comfort and well-being of the laying hens. Temperature fluctuations can lead to stress and reduced egg production.
    2. Hygienic Conditions in Housing and Feed: Clean and well-maintained housing environments are essential to prevent the spread of diseases and maintain the overall health of the birds. Proper sanitation of feeding and drinking equipment helps ensure that the birds have access to clean and uncontaminated food and water.
    3. Prevention and Control of Diseases and Pests: Implementing biosecurity measures, such as limiting visitor access and controlling the movement of personnel and equipment, helps prevent the introduction and spread of diseases. Regular health checks, vaccination programs, and timely administration of treatments are important to maintain flock health.
    4. Nutritional Requirements: Providing a balanced and nutritious diet is vital for optimal egg production. Diets should be rich in vitamins A and K, which are crucial for the development of healthy eggshells and the overall reproductive health of the hens.

    Broiler Production Management

    Broiler production focuses on raising chickens for meat consumption. Successful broiler production requires specific management practices to ensure rapid growth and high-quality meat production:

    1. Protein-Rich Food: Broilers require a diet rich in protein to support rapid growth and muscle development. High-quality protein sources are included in their diet to meet their nutritional needs.
    2. Hygiene and Proper Care: Maintaining clean and hygienic housing conditions is crucial to prevent diseases and promote the well-being of broilers. Proper ventilation and waste management help create a comfortable environment for the birds.
    3. Disease Management: Preventive measures such as vaccination, regular health checks, and biosecurity protocols are essential to prevent the spread of diseases among the broiler flock.

    Breeding and Genetics

    1. Selective breeding is employed to develop poultry breeds with desirable traits such as high egg production, rapid growth, and disease resistance.
    2. Genetic advancements contribute to improved efficiency and productivity within the poultry industry.

    Egg Collection and Meat Processing

    1. Eggs are collected daily from layer houses and sorted for quality before being packaged for distribution.
    2. For meat production, broiler chickens are raised to a specific age and weight before being processed and prepared for distribution to consumers.

    Fish Production and Aquaculture

    Fish production plays a vital role in providing affordable animal protein to human diets. It can be sourced from both natural habitats and aquaculture, which involves the controlled cultivation of aquatic organisms. Fish production includes various types of fish and shellfish.

    Types of Fish Production

    1. Natural Sources: Fish can be obtained from natural sources like rivers, lakes, and oceans. However, overfishing and environmental concerns have led to the need for sustainable fishing practices and conservation efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems.
    2. Aquaculture: Aquaculture involves the farming of aquatic organisms under controlled conditions. It is a rapidly growing sector of the food industry due to its ability to produce a consistent supply of fish while addressing overfishing concerns.

    Aquaculture and its Significance

    1. Farmed Fish: In aquaculture, various species of fish and shellfish are raised in tanks, ponds, or controlled aquatic environments.
    2. Diverse Species: Aquaculture encompasses a wide range of aquatic organisms, including finned true fish like salmon, tilapia, and catfish, as well as shellfish like shrimp, oysters, and mussels.
    3. Coastal and Inland Areas: Aquaculture is practised in both coastal areas (mariculture) and inland regions, utilising ponds, lakes, and controlled water bodies.

    Benefits of Aquaculture

    1. Sustainable Production: Aquaculture reduces the pressure on wild fish populations by providing a controlled and sustainable source of seafood.
    2. Economic Growth: It contributes to local economies by generating employment opportunities and income for communities involved in fish farming.
    3. Food Security: Aquaculture helps meet the increasing demand for fish protein, supporting food security and nutrition.
    4. Environmental Conservation: Responsible aquaculture practices can minimise negative environmental impacts and promote the conservation of aquatic ecosystems.

    Challenges and Considerations

    1. Disease Management: Controlling diseases and preventing outbreaks is crucial in aquaculture to maintain healthy fish populations.
    2. Environmental Impact: Poorly managed aquaculture can lead to pollution and habitat destruction, emphasising the need for sustainable practices.
    3. Regulation and Certification: To ensure sustainable and safe practices, many countries have regulations and certification programs for aquaculture operations.

    Composite Fish Farming

    a) Composite fish farming, also referred to as polyculture, is a practice in which different species of fish with complementary feeding habits are cultured together in the same pond. This method aims to utilise different ecological niches and feeding zones in the pond effectively.

    b) By combining species that feed at different levels of the water column or have varied diets, the overall productivity of the fish pond can be significantly increased. For instance, surface-feeding species, column-feeding species, and bottom-feeding species can be stocked together.

    • Surface-Feeding Species: These fish feed on organisms at the water's surface, like phytoplankton and insects. Example: Cutlas.
    • Column-Feeding Species: These fish forage in the middle layer of water, consuming suspended plankton and small aquatic organisms. Example: Rohus.
    • Bottom-Feeding Species: These fish scavenge for food at the pond bottom, including detritus, algae, and small invertebrates. Example: Mrigals and Common Carp.

    c) This approach reduces competition for food resources and results in higher fish yields compared to monoculture (culturing a single species). Composite fish farming is a sustainable way to optimise fish production and enhance the efficiency of fish ponds.

    Marine and Inland Fisheries

    Marine Fisheries

    Marine fisheries refer to the harvesting of aquatic organisms from oceans, seas, and coastal waters. This type of fishing involves catching a wide variety of marine species, including fish, crustaceans (such as prawns and crabs), molluscs (like mussels and oysters), and even aquatic plants like seaweed. Marine fisheries contribute significantly to global seafood production and are a crucial source of protein and economic livelihood for many coastal communities. Various fishing methods are used in marine fisheries, ranging from traditional small-scale fishing to industrial-scale operations using trawlers and fishing vessels.

    1. Commercial Importance: Marine fisheries contribute significantly to the global economy by supplying seafood for international trade and domestic consumption. They support jobs in fishing, processing, transportation, and related industries.
    2. Challenges: Overfishing, illegal fishing, bycatch (unintended catch of non-target species), and habitat destruction are major challenges faced by marine fisheries. Sustainable management is essential to maintain fish stocks and preserve marine ecosystems.

    Inland Fisheries

    Inland fisheries, on the other hand, focus on the cultivation and harvesting of aquatic organisms in freshwater bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds, and reservoirs. Freshwater fish farming is a vital component of inland fisheries, where fish species are bred, reared, and harvested for consumption. In addition to fish, inland fisheries may also involve the cultivation of other aquatic organisms like shrimp, prawns, and crayfish. These practices are often integrated with agricultural activities, such as rice farming, where flooded fields are used to rear fish alongside crops.

    1. Integrated Farming: Inland fisheries can be integrated with other agricultural activities. For example, fish can be cultured alongside rice in paddy fields, benefiting from nutrient-rich water and optimising land use.


    Beekeeping, also known as apiculture, is the practice of maintaining bee colonies, primarily for the production of honey, beeswax, and other bee-related products. Beekeeping is not only a source of honey but also serves as an important ecological service as bees play a crucial role in pollination, which is essential for the reproduction of many flowering plants.

    Benefits of Beekeeping

    1. Honey Production: Beekeepers extract honey from the beehives, which is a valuable natural sweetener and has various health benefits.
    2. Beeswax: Beeswax is collected from the honeycomb and has multiple uses, including making candles, cosmetics, and skincare products.
    3. Pollination: Bees pollinate plants, enhancing agricultural productivity and ensuring the reproduction of fruits, vegetables, and nuts.

    Bee Varieties

    Different bee varieties are used in beekeeping practices. Some indigenous bee varieties include Apis cerana indica, Apis dorsata, and Apis florae. These bees are well-adapted to local conditions and are commonly found in various regions. Apis mellifera, an Italian bee variety, is also widely used in beekeeping due to its high honey production capabilities.

    Honey Quality and Value

    The quality and flavour of honey depend on factors such as the types of flowers the bees visit for nectar, the geographical region, and the processing methods used. Beekeepers often take measures to ensure that their bees have access to a diverse range of flowers, resulting in different varieties of honey with distinct characteristics.

     Learn more about Our Environment

    Share Your Feedback

    CREST Olympiads has launched this initiative to provide free reading and practice material. In order to make this content more useful, we solicit your feedback.

    Do share improvements at Please mention the URL of the page and topic name with improvements needed. You may include screenshots, URLs of other sites, etc. which can help our Subject Experts to understand your suggestions easily.

    Other Science Related Topics Class 9