﻿ Geometric Shapes and Solids for Class 2 | Maths Olympiad

# Geometric Shapes and Solids

## Geometric Shapes and Solids - Class 2

• Common Geometric Shapes
• One Dimensional (1D) Shapes
• Two Dimensional (2D) Shapes
• Three Dimensional (3D) or Solid Shapes
• In this chapter, we will learn about various shapes that we see in our surroundings. In this article, we will be able to recognise shapes correctly and learn about their characteristics.

## Common Geometric Shapes

The common geometric shapes used in our daily lives are shown as:

Geometrical shapes consist of:
One-dimensional shapes (1D)
Two-dimensional shapes (2D)
Three-dimensional shapes (3D)

### One Dimensional (1D) Shapes

One-dimensional (1D) shapes have only length. They are simple figures that we can draw using only a line and curves. Examples of one-dimensional shapes are:

Point

Straight line

Ray

Parallel lines

Curves

These 1D shapes are the primary building blocks of geometry and are vital for studying complex shapes in the future.

### Two Dimensional (2D) Shapes

These Two-dimensional (2D) shapes are plane figures that have two dimensions: length and breadth (or width).

Characteristics of Two-dimensional shapes:

Sides: The sides of two-dimensional shapes are straight lines.

Vertices: Vertices are the points where a shape's sides meet.

Angles: Where two sides of a shape meet, an angle is created.

Examples of 2D shapes are closed figures, shown as:

There are certain prefixes that aid in understanding the figure's shape, such as:

Tri – 3

Penta – 5

Hexa – 6

Hepta – 7

Octa – 8 and many more……

Let’s discuss more about the plane figure.

Triangle: A closed shape that has three straight lines.

Quadrilateral: It is a closed shape with four straight lines. Examples: rectangle, square, parallelogram, kite, rhombus and trapezium.

Pentagon: A closed shape that has five straight lines.

Hexagon: A closed shape that has six straight lines.

Heptagon: A closed shape that has seven straight lines.

Octagon: A closed shape that has eight straight lines.

Circle: It is a closed shape that looks round with no corners and edges. It is a flat shape that is curved.

Oval: An oval is a shape like an egg and doesn't have any straight lines or corners. It is a flat shape.

These 2D shapes help us understand the basic building blocks of geometry and are important for learning about more 3D shapes.

Example: Name the shape of the playground given below.

a) Circle
b) Oval
c) Hexagon
d) Octagon

Explanation: The shape of the playground is an oval which is shaped like an egg. It doesn't have any straight lines or corners.

### Three-Dimensional (3D) or Solid Shapes

Three-dimensional (3D) shapes are like solid objects that have three special things: length, breadth (or width) and height.

Some common 3D shapes are the cube, cuboid (like a rectangular box), cone and cylinder.

Example: Which of the following solid shapes does NOT have a quadrilateral?

a)
b)
c)
d)

Explanation: In options (a), (b) and (c), the objects consist of quadrilaterals (four-sided figures).
In option (d), the object consists of hexagons (six-sided figures).

Example: Identify the shape of the pastry.

a) Cuboid
b) Cube
c) Cylinder
d) Sphere